With two thirds of the earth’s surface covered by water and the human body consisting of 75 percent of it, it is evidently clear that water is one of the prime elements responsible for life on earth. Water circulates through the land just as it does through the human body, transporting, dissolving, replenishing nutrients and organic matter, while carrying away waste material. Further in the body, it regulates the activities of fluids, tissues, cells, lymph, blood and glandular secretions.
India is urbanizing fast. At present, some 340 million people live in cities; by 2030 this population may double. This means a direct stress on the already burdened water supply systems of urban India. On the one hand, water availability per capita is declining, leading to tussles over water in cities every summer; on the other hand, climate change (erratic weather, extreme weather events, and change in monsoon patterns) is expected to aggravate the crisis.
India is already categorized as a ‘water stressed’ country, and is expected to tumble down into the category of ‘water scarce’ by 2050. Water experts consider a country water stressed if the per capita annual water supply falls below 1,700cubic meters, and water scarce if it falls below 1,000cubic m.
There is a vast disparity in water availability per capita both within and between cities in India. A 2011 study, Sustainable Tomorrow: Harnessing ICT Potential, jointly prepared by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and the National Association of Software and Services Company (NASSCOM) reported that while the city of Triuvannamalai gets 584lpcd, Tuticorin gets only 9lpcd. Another study by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) covering 20 major Indian cities found an average water availability of 4.3 hours per day.
Bengaluru ‘s water crisis is one such case.It has been predicted that people may have to evacuate the city by 2038 due to acute water crisis.
Bengaluru is situated at a height of 3,000 feet above the sea level.
The water that comes to Bengaluru has to be pumped up by 100 km. This makes Bengaluru’s water the costliest available water in all of India and Asia. The water costs the government Rs. 82 per kilolitre on actuals whereas Delhi’s water costs its government only Rs. 28 per kilolitre.
As Bengaluru has not many rivers flowing on its surface the situation is even more dire.The groundwater tables are not been able to replenish themselves. The only major source of water in Bangalore is from the river Cauvery. It is however not enough to cater to the growing population of the city.
Do you know that Bengaluru has more than 159 lakes ? Most of the lakes have however dried up.The call of action is to restore those lakes so that they can help in replenishing the water table.
In the 1980’s a farmer used to get groundwater just by digging thirty feet into the ground. Today even after digging more than 1000 feet the groundwater is just not enough. The water table is depleting drastically. It is also being polluted by sewage and factory wastes.
1/4th of the water resource in Benguluru is being wasted due to leakage in pipelines.
There is a common belief that the water resources are being misused by the agragraian poor population but it is not true. The majority of the city’s water supply is given out to middle class and upper class people.
In summers the situation is even more worse. With water being supplied two days a week into the tanks and the tanks being pumped just for three hours in the morning. The water fights ensued due to crisis is also seen.In rural areas it is in the form of standing in long queues for hours to get water from the handpipe. In urban areas disputes arises as in who
pumped more water from the tanks.
Rainwater harvesting should be practiced very diligently and strictly. It depends on the amount of rainfall in the region and with the current trends of global warming is totally unpredictable .
In order to prevent future crisis we need to practice Sustainable Development. It is defined as the development that meets the need of the present without compromising with the needs of the future generation. Wastage of water should be avoided at all times. Water should be recycled and treated to reuse it again.
The principle of Three R’s must be followed that is Reduce, Reuse and Replenish.
Earlier Bengaluru was home to 800-odd lakes.Today, only about 200 lakes remain.
Bengaluru is 3,000 feet above sea level. So, water has to be pumped up by 100 km.This makes Bengaluru’s water the costliest in all of India and Asia at Rs 82 per kilolitre, vs Rs 28 per kiloliter in Delhi.
Approximately 509 million litres of this water goes waste every day because of our bad distribution network.
The groundwater is over-exploited by more than 150 per cent.Average depth of bore-wells in areas such as Marathahalli, Sarjapur, HSR Layout is about 1,200 feet and is going deeper.
Technological advancement may also help in curbing the water crisis. One such example is the latest breakthrough. Few Indian researchers, from the city of Bengaluru have actually got the answer to the question as of how to convert air into water to solve water problems in any area. The answer is, they made a machine which drag the water vapors from the air and convert into drinking water just induce like a rain.
According to the researchers, it is a perfect reaction for water crisis in Bengaluru (India). Researchers from Scalene Energy Research Institute (SERI) have developed such technology that transfers air into water at home called “Rain Tunnel“.
The project has already been started in September 2015.
The research work was running for past 4 years at SERI, this 24 year old organization is working on this project which relates to healthcare, water and energy technology.
According to scientists, the water available in the atmosphere is about 12 trillion liters, and from past 3000 years we are extracting it from other sources. A similar technology of water conversion is refrigeration in which firstly the air freezes, water condenses and then it is cooled down for extraction. However, in this technology, the requirement of energy is very high thus ultimately increases the cost of water.
The Rain Tunnel technology bypasses those problems by simulating rain, said by Dr. Rajah Vijay Kumar, Director SERI, who also worked in this project with a 12 member team.
There is very less difference in speed at which water is produced as it depends on the atmospheric humidity at different places, it also works on the conditions where the water vapor is about 10 ppm (parts per million) in the atmosphere.
It reduces the human effort in rural areas as they directly use groundwater from hand tube well which also contains harmful bacteria especially in rainy season and lots of extra minerals like arsenic. It is also convenient as it only needs electricity.
With such technological breakthroughs we can hope for a better future for Bengaluru as well as the whole of India.
Sources from www.timesofindia.com ,
Bangalore mirror and nandanlekhi.in